From a global perspective, the combustion engine will not be replaced by an all-electric powertrain overnight. Current development efforts are significantly driven by emissions in real driving operation. With the help of virtual prototypes, early calibration and testing for different powertrain layouts, driving modes and vehicle models is made possible on test benches and in simulation.
Virtual hybridization can also be carried out on test benches (e.g. virtual electric rear axle, virtual P2 transmission module) to investigate the effects on emissions in real driving scenarios.