Off-highway: Meeting challenges on other terrains

Introduce typical work scenarios into the simulation and test whether your developments meet the requirements of the real world – regardless of whether you are testing systems for construction machines, agricultural machines, forestry or municipal vehicles, material handling applications or off-road vehicles.

Virtual test driving delivers reproducible and reliable results, enabling you to steer your project in the right direction at an early stage and secure a technical advantage in the competition for the best off-highway innovations. As a reliable partner in the area of off-highway, we know the ins and outs of the challenges facing this sector: Increasingly intelligent mechatronic systems are being integrated into vehicles in an attempt to increase the productivity, precision and safety of mobile machines.

At the same time, everything revolves around the most efficient use of fuels, as the laws governing the emission of pollutants become increasingly strict. The high number of variants compared to a relative low production quantity is another factor. All of this points towards consistently using simulation during the development process. We are here to support you in expanding your development environment according to your requirements. 

Energy efficiency & environmental impact

Efficient and environmentally conscious – requirements for the powertrains of the future

The statutory regulations governing the permitted emission of pollutants are becoming increasingly strict. At the same time, there is one thing that matters most for customers and manufacturers: the economic efficiency of machines. Modern motor and automatic transmission controls can make a significant contribution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The electrification of diesel engines and alternative fuels are other key technologies which can be put toward achieving these ambitious objectives. But which approaches promise the most success for the specific application? Virtual test driving helps you to recognize critical phases of operation for emissions and consumption during all stages of development and understand the related interactions, so that you can react early to the results.

Determine total efficiency in realistic work scenarios

  • Use models to build a virtual prototype and all sub-systems quickly and easily. The tried and tested models in the CarMaker or TruckMaker library serve as a basis. You can also integrate models of components or systems from other modelling environments, such as Simulink, Dymola, GT, AVL CRUISE or C code via our wide variety of interfaces.
  • Define application scenarios, which IPGDriver then executes with precision - from light-duty vehicles to heavy-duty and special vehicles. Just like a human test driver, IPGDriver accelerates, brakes, steers and operates the equipment. 
  • Test and optimize your developments in one single development environment.
  • Use the virtual benchmark to compare the driveability, consumption and pollutant emission of your powertrain in different vehicles and with different operating strategies.
  • Our test systems merge hardware (electronic control units/components) with simulation in a complete system. For example, you can integrate the motor, which is actually running on the test bench, into the vehicle simulated in real time, enabling you to measure the real-world consumption and emissions in realistic and reproducible work scenarios. 
  • Practical for developing hybrid powertrain concepts: By electrically powering the motor virtually in the whole vehicle and analyzing emissions and consumption on the engine test bench, you can reduce the number of complex and costly vehicle prototypes needed.
Safety & comfort

Faster and safer both on and off the road: Vehicle dynamics assistance systems

The tractor is the all-rounder among the mobile machines. It serves to tow and drive equipment in the fields and is also used outside of agriculture in forestry, municipal applications or for work on construction sites. Since the speed threshold of tractors has continually increased in recent years, they are now used for transport work on the road with rising frequency. This places new demands on vehicle dynamics of tractors, and vehicle dynamics assistance systems are increasingly integrated into the vehicles to provide greater safety and comfort.

Examples include:

  • Anti-lock braking systems 
  • Tire pressure control systems
  • Self-leveling front axles
  • Speed-dependent roll stabilization
  • Superimposed steering systems
  • Steer-by-wire steering systems with dynamic steering angle control
  • Automatic steering assistance

Put functions to the test at an early stage – in a reproducible, safe and resource-efficient manner

Test your systems throughout the development process using virtual test driving. Use your vehicle data to build a virtual prototype based on CarMaker or TruckMaker. Discover the wide range of options for modelling and simulating special off-road routes and off-road tires. Automate your tests with Test Manager, which performs all the relevant maneuvers overnight, analyzes the results and provides a finished report the next day. This enables you to conduct sensitivity studies in no time at all, during which you can vary all the relevant parameters for your investigation.

Some examples:

  • Varying ground surfaces 
  • Ground unevenness (e.g. by integrating OpenCRG data)
  • Transverse and longitudinal slopes on the route
  • Different types of off-road tires
  • Attachments such as a plow, harrow, cultivator, mower, front loader, bucket, etc.
  • Ballasting
  • Trailers with different types of loads
Networking & automation

Cooperation made easy – collaborative and autonomous vehicles

The trend towards increased networking and automation in agricultural engineering continues uninterrupted. This results in an increase in development effort, which can be managed with advanced simulation and testing solutions. Two current developments reflect this trend: The “electronic drawbar” enables the driver to drive several agricultural machines at the same time. The machines are connected via radio and satellite navigation to form a single unit, which allows the driverless vehicle to complete the same operations as the vehicle with a driver. An example of automation is the autonomous tractor, which independently moves a grain cart between the combine harvester in the field and a truck on the edge of the field. 

Play it safe – simulate all conceivable scenarios

Collaborating agricultural machines and autonomous vehicles require high standards of safety. The more independent the system, the more extensively the sensors and cameras need to monitor the environment. Accordingly, it is important to test all conceivable scenarios in the simulation: Does the safety concept work? What happens if a sensor malfunctions? How does the system handle typical sensor disturbance variables? What is the impact of the weather?

  • Create virtual prototypes of your machines including their attachments in CarMaker or TruckMaker
  • Integrate models of the sensor technologies deployed via various interfaces. Use radar, lidar and ultrasonic models. The sophisticated Physical Sensor Models are also available, which send video data synchronously to the simulation with regard to time and place.
  • Does your system use a combination of GPS signals and vehicle dynamics data to determine its position? Then simulate a GPS satellite system with the space segment model, which can even model real-world faults and disturbance variables of the GPS signal.
  • Test the systems throughout the development process in MIL, SIL and HIL tests. Our Video Interface Box supports the testing of camera-based systems on the hardware-in-the-loop test bench. 
  • Test your real-world agricultural machine off-road in an entirely virtual environment with vehicle-in-the-loop simulation.

This is virtual test driving

Simulating scenarios, automating tests, evaluating results and making the right decisions

Wheel loaders are sophisticated machines. They need to be fast and maneuverable, and able to apply enormous force on the bucket. Even demanding and complex scenarios can be tested at early stages of development using virtual test driving.

Mobile loads result in different vehicle handling than stationary loads. Using a virtual prototype, you can investigate vehicle behavior when driving around curves, with sudden steering movements or when braking.

Forklift trucks are able to transport loads weighing several tons to dizzying heights. Assistance systems provide support – our solutions allow you to efficiently test all variants.

Specific superstructures for special vehicles are usually one-of-a-kind structures, so prototypes are not readily available. Virtual test driving enables you to systematically validate the customer specifications before delivery.

Find more information here.

Media type: PresentationDate: 01.01.2016 Language: EnglishFile format: PDFSize: 2.09 MB

Test management: CarMaker at Linde (Apply & Innovate 2016)

material handling solutionstest manager programCarMaker
Media type: PresentationDate: 01.01.2016 Language: EnglishFile format: PDFSize: 2.53 MB

Tractor efficiency enhancement: TruckMaker at John Deere (Apply & Innovate 2016)

vehicle-in-the-looptractor efficiency optimizationJohn Deereoff-highway
Media type: PresentationDate: 01.01.2014 Language: EnglishFile format: PDFSize: 2.26 MB

Model-based testing of the Linde Safety Pilot for forklifts (Apply & Innovate 2014)

forklift trucksoff-highwaydriver assistance systems ADAS
Media type: PublicationDate: 01.01.2013 Language: EnglishFile format: PDFSize: 1.64 MB

ATZ 12/2013: Simulation of Vehicle Dynamics of a Quad With Active Driver

Electrified traction drives allow today to equip quads with individual axle drives in the fields of leisure and forest operation. But to assure the function of these all-terrain vehicles (ATV) especially the higher ratio between the mass of the driver to the mass of the vehicle has to be taken into account. Gigatronik simulated the vehicle dynamics using an active driver model in order to increase safety and to parameterize a torque vectoring function.
vehicle dynamics

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